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Ploughing cost per hectare

Labour is costed at £12.50/hour, fuel at 57p/litre and the tractor - a John Deere 8420 - at £10/hour. All costs are £/hectare. Drawing on Co-operative farms' data, accumulated over many. Prices are as guide ONLY and per area unless otherwise stated. Contractor charges 2018. Per hectare. Per acre. Soil preparation /ha. Ploughing - light land. 61.36

-Roughly, it would take a week (having regard to the short day on Saturday) to plough from 4 to 4i acres, costing 110 10s., which equals 46s. 8d. to 52s. 6d. per acre. When it is possible to plough an average of acre a day, 6i days would be required to plough the 5 acres above, and the cost would be 110 18s. 9d., roughly 211 It is around inr 4500 to 5,000 per acre for a single ploughing by a tractor and inr 7,000 to 8,000 per acre for double ploughing. Double ploughing helps to maintain softness in the soil and water retaining capacity of the soil. 3.4K views Promoted by Hippo Insurance Service

Cultivation costs compared - Farmers Weekl

Depreciation cost (implements) = (new price - trade-in price) ÷ number of years used . Interest cost (implements) = average value x interest rate. Estimating ownership costs on an hourly basis . To estimate what a yearly cost is on a 'per hour' basis, you must divide the yearly cost by the number of hours per year spent using the machine Figures are per acre. Assuming 135hp tractor pulling 5 sixteen inch furrows covering 3 acre hour. £10 for wearing parts £3.50 for labour £3 for tyres, wear and tear etc. then on top of that it needs a figure adding in to cover replacement costs and profit etc so basically we need to be well into the twenties plus diesel A new guide for contracting prices for 2019/20 has been published by the National Association of Agricultural Contractors (NAAC). The prices give a national average to help steer contractors and farmers. However, businesses are warned not to rely too heavily on these guide prices as it is important that contractors know their individual costs.

New NAAC contracting prices 2018 South East Farme

the cost of cultivation of cassava varies from location please find out about the actual price in your location. this is just a guideline as the farming season draws close [center]LAND PREPARATION FOR CASSAVA [/center] Ploughing: this is the primary tillage to loosen or turn the soil. PLOUGHING (single operation)/ acre = N450 x Capital outlay, e quipment costs, labour costs, and the number of hour s per hectare and litres of fuel per hectare , decreased as the tillage system s changed from C onventional ploughing to N o -till (Table 1) The consumption of disel in wheat is 20 l / ha, in early soybean 23.8 l / ha, second soybean 22 l / ha, early corn 21.5 l / ha and late corn 22 l / ha. The consumption of disel by quantity of. Ploughing is blamed for destroying soil structure and a new double density basal fertiliser dubbed 'Double D Fert' is now available on the market to address this. It is applied at the rate of 2 x 50 kg/ha. The cost for two 50kg bags is US$80 compared to US$120 to US$140 for 4 x 50 kg bags of the regular less concentrated 'Compound D' Cost of the machine At a cost of Shs18m, Sawyer says the 25 horsepower ploughing tractor is a reliable tool to have on your farm. There are a number of ways in which you can acquire the machine

1. Total cost of cultivation =Total variable cost +Total fixed cost. 2. Total income = Yield (kg) × Market price of the produce (Rs./kg) 3. Net Profit = Total Income - Total cost of cultivation. 4. Benefit cost Ratio = Cost of total benefit / Cost of production. SOLVED EXAMPLE

THE COST OF PLOUGHING BY TRACTOR

  1. Ownership cost $ 508.40 $ 2.03 Maintenance & repair cost $ 379.50 $ 1.52 Fuel cost $ 436.95 $ 1.75 TOTAL COST $ 1,324.85 $ 5.30 According to Table 9.6, the total cost per hectare for operating a 3.4 m chisel plow is $5.30. This is the cost of the implement only
  2. Tractors normally do three hectares per day for ploughing and the rate per hectare for ploughing is N25,000. For harrowing a tractor normally does six hectares per day and the rate is N12,500 per hectare. For ridging a tractor does six hectares per day which and the rate is N12,500 per hectare
  3. We respond very simply by presenting a breakdown cost of all activities and input that one needs to cultivate 1 hectare of ginger. ***1 hectare (ha) = 2.5 acres (ac). Moreover, we compare the costs for 2 methods of ginger cultivation. The conventional method of ginger production where you slash, burn and plough
  4. COST OF CUTIVATION OF BULB CROPS PER HECTARE ONION I. Variable cost A) Soil fumigation = B) Land Preparation = i. Bullock /Tractor- 3 Ploughings = 3 Plankings = ii. Bed and channel preparation = iii. Transplanting and mulching = iv. Interculture = v. Irrigation at seedling level and crop growth = vi. Fertilizers and manures = vii. Plant.
Costs on farmers for low-emission slurry equipment

Test your soils now to avoid ploughing in your profits. Craig Swan also acknowledges the direct impact on cost per hectare when variable rate application is not employed, A farmer can spend $40 per hectare on fertiliser for pasture. An uneven fertiliser application can cost another $40 per hectare in lost production, effectively doubling. Like in Ogun State, the cost of hiring a tractor for ploughing is 7000 naira per hectare and the cost of hiring a tractor for other operations on the farm is 5000 naira per hectare. So if a farmer hires a tractor to plough 3 hectares of farmland, the total amount the farmer has to pay is 21000 naira Tractors normally do three hectares per day for ploughing and the rate per hectare for ploughing is N25,000. Learn More. Labour Saving Devices Hiring Services. Besides the provision of tractors for ridging, ploughing and harrowing, we also carrying out major farm mechanization activities such as

Variable costs (VCs) a) Production Costs Item Quantity Unit cost Total Cost workers are required per hectare, but during peak periods (planting, weeding and harvesting) the demand increases 5 Ploughing 500.00 6 Land preparation Irrigation Thinning Weeding Pest control Top dressing 101md. It costs about US$70 per hectare to hire a tractor to either plough or disc one's land. Depending on the size, efficiency and age of the tractor, it takes 25-30 litres of diesel per hectare to plough a piece of land and 15-20 litres of diesel to disc the same piece of land

Time to maturity 5 - 6 years Cost of Tools and equipment $30,000 amortized over 5 years Productive Life 50 - 65 yrs Land Rental/Taxes per hectare $15,000 Planting distance (l * w) 9m x 9m (30ft x 30ft) Marketable Yield 90% Plant population 123 - square formation Cost of Production Assumptions/details Unit No of Units Cost 1.1 notes on machinery costs The costs of owning and operating machinery can be divided into two categories - namely fixed costs and variable costs. Fixed costs relate to machinery ownership and occur regardless of whether the machinery is used or not. Fixed costs per hour of usage are inversely proportional to the extent of annual usage At Agridrive Nigeria Limited, which is a social enterprise company which provides mechanisation under AATF, it is N54,000 per hectare for full package - ploughing, harrowing, planting.

What is the cost of ploughing 1 acre of land? - Quor

  1. With the exception of those regions where crusting, drought and erosion are critical factors, the primary driving force behind reduced use of ploughing is economic. While the plough itself is not the most expensive piece of equipment, the low capacity means that the costs per hectare are high
  2. per hectare is 13-18 ton per hectare, in this attempt the production scenario is (10,12 and15) ton/hectare as showed in Table 2. Results and Discussion The results of cost benefit analysis of kenaf cultivation for producing fiber obtained in Tables 3a-3c illustrate the scenario of kenaf production per hectare (15, 12 and 10 tons), respectively
  3. imum and deep ploughing) and two row widths (0,9 m and 1,5 m)
  4. The repair and maintenance costs shall be calculated as 10 per cent of the initial cost of the machine per year. R & M = 10 x C/(100 X H) Where, R&M = Repair and maintenance costs, Rs/hr Cost of ploughing 1.0 ha land = No. of hours / ha x cost of ploughing Rs./ ha Calculate the cost of seeding one hectare of land with bullock drawn seed.

Ploughing costs, wear & tear etc The Farming Foru

Question: If your 10 hectare farm can be plowed using 100hr machine-hours and 10manhours and rent for the tractor at P30,000 per week, and produce a harvest of 1,000 cavans of palay per season at cost of 1,000 pesos per cavan , what is the farmer's economies of scale? a. Plowing the 10 hectare b The average prices of agricultural land have gone up by 10 percent during the last quarter, and they are 12 percent higher that last year, according to data from the Agricultural Real Estate Agency (ANR). In Q1 this year, a hectare of agricultural land cost zł.19,400 in Poland on average. In 2010, the average was zł.18,000 per hectare The average cost of residential snow removal is $30 to $100 for up to 6 and $30 per additional 6. Snow plowers charge $25 to $75 per hour, with contract prices at $200 to $600 per season. Commercial snow plowing rates are $50 to $200 per hour for parking lots and $150 to $350 per acre for salting

4 Volumes of soil to be cut and filled per hectare for reverse-sloped bench terraces. Chapter VII. 13b Terrace construction by ploughing from the upper side only. 14 Sample cost per 100 m of narrow waterway in two countries.. Using Fisher German's own calculation tool and a 150-hectare farm as an example, the annual BPS payments are likely to reduce something like this over time: 2020 = £34,200 (£92 per acre/£228 per hectare) 2021 = £31,806 (£86 per acre/£212 per hectare) 2022 = £27,292 (£74 per acre/£182 per hectare

200-400 kg per hectare. Place fertilizer in the furrow and cover with 2 cm of soil before placing the seed on the soil. It is important to cover the fertilizer with VARIABLE COSTS item unit quantity/ha unit cost Total Cost /Hectare Seed Pan 148 kg 100 $ 3.00 $ 300.00 Fertilizer D Extra kg 300 $ 0.70 $ 210.00. Before last ploughing, a basal dose of 700 kg of super phosphate, 25 tonnes offarmyard manure along with Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria each at 2 kg per hectare was applied. Raised beds of 60 cm width were formed and the seedlings planted on the centre of the raised beds at a spacing of 45 cm

For rock dykes, the output per man-day can be 1 to 2 cubic m (or 3 to 6 m length) per man-day depending on the availability of stones. 9. Cost relations. The cost per ha of natural terraces is higher than for hillside ditches because the spacings are closer on most slopes Agronomy of Sunflower Production: Sunflower is sown by Dibbling method which requires 5-6 kg seed per hectare, while furrow sowing needs 8-10 kg per hectare. The excess seedlings are thinned 10-15 days after seedling emergence. Seeds should be treated with captan or ceresan @ 3 g/kg seed under dryland conditions

Make ridges after ploughing. Farmers may use organic manure together with granular fertilizers. Superfert compound C is applied at rate of 1 000kgs per hectare before transplanting. Plant spacing is essential for the bulb growth and we recommend a plant population of 650 000 to 800 000 per hectare. That means 4 to 5kgs of seeds are needed per. Cassava Bankole Kola - Green Farms, Ikere. An experienced Cassava (manihot esculenta) farmer in Ekiti South Senatorial District of Ekiti State harvests an average of 60 tonnes of Cassava tubers per hectare of land cultivated with an average cost of N83,000 covering land preparation (ploughing, harrowing & ridging), maintenance and stem cuttings the highest yield per hectare and the highest grain energy value among cereals. It is used in animal in the conventional tillage system based on ploughing. However, due to costs, natural conditions, and environmental protection, modern maize production technologies more and more often us For example, if a farmer with a 100-hectare farm (250 acres) was able to sequester 2 metric tons of carbon per hectare and sell the credits for $15 each (100 hectare Á— 2 tons Á— $15), they would net $3,000. Depending on the practice, that income might accrue yearly, or it might be a one-shot opportunity. There are various caveats

An example is insurance which currently costs about $1000 per week regardless whether we work it or not. If we do 1000 hectares per week that is $1 per hectare. If we do 4000 hectares that is $0.25c. Variable Costs. These are the costs per hour to operate the aircraft. If the aircraft is sitting still these costs are not incurred 2500 trees per hectare and are planted on dwarfing rootstocks are considered to be intensive systems. An example of this density is 4 m between rows, with 1 m between trees in the row (2500 trees per hectare). On flat ground, row widths of 3 m are possible with suitable machinery. A 3 m x 1 m planting is equivalent to 3333 trees/ha Apply 200 kg (4 bags) of NPK 25-10-10 per hectare at planting as band or broadcast application. For Hybrids Corn Varieties: For every high yields maize, you'll need to apply 600 kg (12 bags) of 25:10:10 per hectare in two splits that is, at planting (200 kg) and 5 to 6 weeks after planting tons per hectare (2.8-6.1 metric tons per acre), based largely on European studies. Thus, potential returns for hemp fiber ranged from a low price/low yield esti-mate of $170 per acre to a high price/high yield return of $759 per acre (table 8). With estimated production expenses of $286, net returns for hemp for fiber ranged from -$116 to $473. Tillage operations are costly. Investments in ploughing and ridging must be paid back by the returns from an increase in yield. Tillage investments are only advisable in well-managed fields of sufficient fertility in which a root yield of at least 12 tonnes per hectare can be achieved

A farmer needs 25 kilogrammes of maize seed per hectare and 10 kilogrammes per acre. Usually two seeds per hole is required and once the plant has grown, farm. ers are expected to remove weaker. Hi Kabukid,This video shows The New List of Top 10 Most Profitable Farming Business in the Philippines per Hectare | Peso Return. The lists are base from Re.. Measurement. The units by which the yield of a crop is usually measured today are kilograms per hectare or bushels per acre.. Long-term cereal yields in the United Kingdom were some 500 kg/ha in Medieval times, jumping to 2000 kg/ha in the Industrial Revolution, and jumping again to 8000 kg/ha in the Green Revolution. Each technological advance increasing the crop yield also reduces the. 7 per cent, largely thanks to timely planting. As a result, in India, it is estimated that zero-tillage has increased incomes by US$97 per hectare, with households typically increasing their annual earnings by US$180-$340. The bulk of this is from reduced costs. Zero-tillag Another local farmer, Gocha Danielashvili also sowed on one hectare with no-till method. He already harvested 3.5 tons per hectare, which is about 800 kilograms more per hectare compared to the previous years. All farmers confirmed their interest to continue using no-till for the next years, and they expect many other farmers to also join

New NAAC contracting prices 2019 South East Farme

Balance per hectare means: gross income minus direct costs per hectare. The balance per hectare for carrots is: € 3.910. Production balance of carrots grown in the Netherlands. The average production balance of the carrots grown for the industry in the Netherlands. Quantity Unit Price Unit Amount; Neto yield 1) 65.000: kg: 0.09 €/kg and phosphate with ploughing Measure and start digging holes for planting Plant, fertilise, irrigate the plants and hoe the weeds. 3 What actions to plan 1. Decide on a cultivar of LAN fertiliser per hectare (50 g per plant) and 4 bags of KCI fertiliser per hectare (100 g per plant) 1

Cost Implication For The Cultivativation Of 1 Hectare Of

The true cost of food isn't on the package Factors such as greenhouse gas emissions, water pollution and soil erosion are not considered in today's cost calculations of products and production systems. Nor are the effects these product and systems have on society and health. If such factors were taken into account, the true cost [ Cost of cultivation of potato per hectare. Economic study of potato production of 44 growers grouped into small (20), medium (14) and large (10) from Agra district showed the overall cost of cultivation to be Rs. 140303.7 per farm and Rs. 78657.98 per hectare This budget outlines the cost of producing processing potatoes under irrigated conditions

What is diesel consumption per hectare or diesel

ESTIMATED CAPITAL REQUIREMENT FOR ONE HECTARE OF PLANTAIN PLANTATION Land development using bulldozer=75,000 Land ploughing=25,000 Planting of suckers=60,000 20 tons of Organic manure=#30,000.. Cost of Labour: The tomato farming business plan assumes that the cost of labour is N240,000 per hectare. Please note that this cost of labour is dependent on a lot of factors. Your location can have an impact on the cost of labour. Also, the level of mechanization on your farm can have an effect on the cost of labour At least 100 mice are killed per hectare per year (500/4 × 0.8) to grow grain. Average yields are about 1.4 tonnes of wheat/hectare ; 13% of the wheat is useable protein This requires about 20 000 to 50 000 plants per hectare depending on the spacing and pepper variety decided on by the grower. Sowing Time In a protected environment like a greenhouse or where the late winter and spring temperatures are warmer the sowing of chilli seeds can begin in July

Soya bean production models cutting costs to maximise

High seeding rates (15-20 kg of seed per hectare) are required under irrigation, intermediate rates in high rainfall areas and low seeding rates in low rainfall areas. Lucerne seed should preferably not be sown with a so-called cover crop. The seed can be broadcasted by hand, seed drill or cycalone spreader 'Payment per hectare needs to double to attract new people to organics' W ith Ireland ranked 26 out of 27 when it comes to organic production in the EU, Tom Dunne says there needs to be more.

density of ten plants per hectare, 84% control can mean 160,000 weed seeds/ha survive as opposed to 99% control, which would leaveonly 10,000 seeds. Table 4: Efficacy of knockdowns on fleabane in a winter fallow (Darling Downs Qld, GRDC Project UQ00055) Herbicide % control for two weed age categories Knock 1 Knock 2 1 month Product cost/h prices at the farm (village prices adjusted for local transport costs). When the variable costs are subtracted from the estimate of the output, the remainder is called the Gross Margin. This difference between the output and the variable costs, usually calculated on per acre or per hectare basis, is a very usefu Tables showing examples of fixed ownership costs and operating costs for a tractor and and implement are provided. This guide aims to alert farmers to real costs of machinery, explain how contract rates are calculated and assist farmers to properly calculate the costs of contracting out machinery. 2009 - State of New South Wales through. cropped area. The average total cost of tobacco production was Rs.43864.71 per acre. In it the average rent of land for tobacco crop was Rs.6500 per acre. Nursery raising cost for one acre was Rs 1116.09, cultural practices cost was 2075.5 per acre. Fertilizers and pesticides cost was Rs 6061.3 and 1780.57 per acre. Topping and irrigation cost.

Cefnllan | Business Wales

Get more work done at minimal cost with a tractor - Daily

  1. The Teagasc figures also confirm that high net profit per hectare farms had higher fixed costs per hectare and per litre (€263 and 0.25c respectively). While net profit per litre was 7% lower (1.58c) on the high net profit per hectare farms, net profit per hectare was 14% higher (€464)
  2. Nadu. The study revealed that per hectare cost of cultivation was about 10 per cent lower in SRI than the tradition al method. The marketing cost per quintal of turmeric has been explained in Table 2. The cost incurred by traditional farmers was seen high i.e. Rs. 207.97 whereas in modern farmers it was Rs. 158.24. The major difference in.
  3. antly oilseeds production, the seed application rate was sub-divided according to own and purchased seed..
  4. Everything seems to increase : + 46% in surface terms and +66% in value, whereas the transaction numer only rose by 7%. Prices rose by 4.6% this year. The average price per hectare exceeded 900 000 €. The Champagne region represents 7% (580) of domestic vineyard transactions, for 1% of the area and 15% of the value
  5. In order to make the comparison less sensitive to annual price and yield variations, per-bushel costs and returns are compared using 5-year average prices and yields. The 5-year average includes marketing years 2008/09 through 2012/13, 2 years before and after the year of cost-of-production data
  6. Machinery Cost Machinery costs are usually third largest cost item. Machinery must be sized to match size of farm. 2002 tobacco study found, machinery cost ranging $552 per acre to $982 on 400 acre farms IL study found, machinery was one of the main variable between high cost and low cost farms, cost varied by as much as $100 per acre

bins at a cost of $450 per acre. The garlic is hauled from the field to a shed by truck for $5.00 per ton. If a grower contracts his harvest operation, all harvesting equipment should be removed from investment costs in Table 4, its appropriate cost should be subtracted from harvest costs in Table 1 and a contract charge would then be added Production costs are rising - In the 2012 study, for which I also published the findings , the equivalent production cost per tonneau was €1,186 vs €1,424 in 2016, while the production cost per bottle was €2.88 vs €3.01 in 2016 (at a yield of 50 hl/ha)

A comparative graphical representation of Field capacityMaking CA ever green

Vsc 211: Cost of Cultivatio

  1. costs, net returns realized averaged P229,454 per hectare in 2012. The average cost per kilogram of pineapple was P1.80. Price received by farmers was P7.39 per kilogram in 2012. Net profit-cost ratio was 3.11 in 2012 WATERMELON Watermelon production entailed an average cost per hectare of P59,219 in 2012. Average yield was 16,772 kilograms per.
  2. Ploughing, harrowing, ridging and boom-spraying with herbicides of one hectare of land cost about N45,000. With this, the land would be adequately prepared mechanically.Similarly, weed control.
  3. Ploughing Championships; 'Reseeding has given us an extra 4.5 tonnes of grass per hectare. the increased profitability of the new sward would cover the cost in just two years making.
  4. Low depreciation costs per hectare of below £63/ha Low repair costs per hectare achieved though tactical hiring and experience Low diesel usage per hectare of below 100 litres/ha Low machinery costs per hour - a low hourly cost of running the tractor reduced key operational costs such as drillin
  5. metres per hectare. A cover crop at 100 kilograms per hectare is also sown during May. During pruning in August only strong canes are left on the vine. Disc ploughing is again done during September and weed in the vine rows removed with a hoe. The control of downy mildew can take place during September and poorly spaced shoots are removed.
  6. The cost of land is established for one hectare. 1. The most expensive territories in the list of Russian agricultural lands are the plots located in Southern Russia (Krasnodar Territory, Rostov Region, and Stavropol Territory). The price ranges from $2,500 to $5,000 per hectare or from $1,000 to $2,000 per acre. 2
  7. One requires 25kg of seed per hectare and this costs US$60 for a 25kg of short to medium season variety and US$90 for a long season variety. It requires about 100 litres of diesel to plough, disc, plant, apply herbicides and harvest the maize using a combine harvester

An example is insurance which currently costs about $1000 per week regardless whether we work it or not. If we do 1000 hectares per week that is $1 per hectare. If we do 4000 hectares that is $0.25c. Variable Costs. These are the costs per hour to operate the aircraft. If the aircraft is sitting still these costs are not incurred How do you calculate manufacturing cost per unit?Watch more videos for more knowledgeCalculating Manufacturing cost - YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch/E.. However, its establishment cost ($461 per hectare) is more than 80 percent above the average of the typical farms in the sample. Of the farms selected, the German farm had the highest seed, pesticide, and fertilizer costs per hectare. On a per hectare basis, the Indiana farm had the lowest pesticide cost, but this farm also had the highest seed. A single hectare in Bordeaux's Pauillac appellation cost €2.3m per hectare on average in 2019, up by 5% on 2018, while Pomerol rose by 6% to €1.9m per hectare. In the Côte des Blancs area of Champagne, vineyards cost a little more than €1.6m per hectare last year, up by 2% versus 2018 A hectare is a metric area equal to 100 square meters. A hectare contains about 2.47 acres, or an acre is about 40 percent the size of a hectare. In the U.S., yields are described as tons per acre. Most vineyards produce on average between 2 and 10 tons of grapes per acre

Ukraine wheat production for marketing year 2021/22 is forecast at 30.0 million metric tons, up 18 percent from last year, 2 percent from last month, and 12 percent from the 5-year average. Yield is forecast at a record 4.18 tons per hectare, up 13 percent from last year and 2 percent from last month There are various materials and methodologies to do the boundary fencing. The cost thus depends on the selected type w.r.t. the longevity, function or purposes etc. Cost varies based on Hedges, Kalkucha Stones, Barbed Wire, Electrical, Walls with. Patriotism, Education, Historic Preservatio

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  1. Ginger takes up large amounts of nutrients. The general fertilizer requirement is 180 kg/ha N, 180 kg/ha P,05, and 255 kg/ha K.O. The considerably high K requirement makes ginger sensitive to low K supply. A hectare of ginger requires 11.5 bags 14-14-14 and 4 bags 0-0-60 in addition to 5 t/ha chicken or animal manure
  2. Our 2020 results indicate that restoration costs per hectare (based on the completed forms) average £1227 (2021 results, average costs per hectare: £1878). However, the calculated average costs are distorted by a small number of sites with a relatively high cost per hectare, therefore it is more informative to refer to the median cost, which.
  3. Rate per pair day is: Rs 500. The cost of machine hour is: Rs 650. Cost of groundnut seeds per kg: Rs 95. Cost of 1 quintal of manure: Rs 2500. Cost of 1 kg of nitrogen fertilizer: Rs 62. Cost of 1 kg of potassium fertilizer: Rs 60. Cost of 1 kg of phosphorous fertilizer: Rs 55. Cost of insecticides and pesticides per litre: Rs 600
  4. In the Masvingo a kilogram of tomatoes is selling at about $2.00, which a farmer can get at least $200 000.00 per hectare. The average yield of tomatoes is 250 to 400 quintals per hectare. - Certified seed will produce 15 -20% higher yields than standard seed
  5. All costs and prices are in ZMW (Zambia Kwacha, new series) All weights in kg All budgets are expressed in ZMW per hectare Field, not household (HH), was the unit of analysis used Unless otherwise noted, all figures are averages Results vary by year for two main reasons: 1. The characteristics of the data sets varied slightly from year to year..
  6. Even after a government subsidy of 33%, it is economically unfeasible for most farmers as their seasonal return does not exceed more than Rs 12,000-Rs 15,000 per hectare
Expert Advice: Most Profitable Use For 157hects Of Land InFP&MM: Lesson 14