Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is encoded by one single gene located on the X chromosome. AIF is ubiquitously expressed, both in normal tissues and in a variety of cancer cell lines. The AIF precursor is synthesized in the cytosol and is imported into mitochondria Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF) is a protein that triggers chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation in a cell in order to induce programmed cell death. The mitochondrial AIF protein was found to be a caspase -independent death effector that can allow independent nuclei to undergo apoptotic changes
Specifically, inhibition of AIF translocation was shown to inhibit nuclear apoptosis in fibroblasts exposed to staurosporine, atractyloside (Susin et al., 1999b) or the alkylating agent MNNG (Yu et.. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a mitochondrial oxidoreductase that contributes to cell death programmes and participates in the assembly of the respiratory chain. Importantly, AIF deficiency leads to severe mitochondrial dysfunction, causing muscle atrophy and neurodegeneration in model organisms as well as in humans. The purpose of this review is to describe functions of AIF and AIF. Apoptosis‐inducing factor (AIF) plays a dual role in regulating cell survival and apoptosis, acting as a prosurvival factor in mitochondria via its NADH oxidoreductase activity and activating the caspase‐independent apoptotic pathway (i.e., parthanatos) after nuclear translocation AIF is thought to play a central role in the caspase-independent apoptosis pathway. The pro-apoptotic effect of AIF is also reflected in its own positive feedback, that is, AIF released into the cytoplasm can act on other mitochondria, increasing their permeability and further promoting the release of AIF Anti-AIF (Apoptosis Inducing Factor) Antibody detects level of AIF (Apoptosis Inducing Factor) & has been published & validated for use in WB. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information
AIF is a main mediator of caspase-independent cell death. It is encoded by a single gene located on chromosome X, region q25-26 and A6 in humans and mice, respectively. Previous studies established that AIF codes for two isoforms of the protein, AIF and AIF-exB In a model of neurotrauma, the translocation of AIF in selected brain areas could be correlated with genomic DNA degradation to∼50 kbp fragments (which is a hallmark of AIF-mediated nuclear apoptosis),although the cells lacked oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation (which is mediated by caspase-activated DNase)(Zhang et al., 2002). Thus,AIF could. Cyclophilin A (CypA) was determined to interact with apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) by mass spectroscopy, coimmunoprecipitation, pull-down assays, and molecular modeling. During the initial.
Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and AMID (A IF-homologous m itochondrion-associated i nducer of d eath) are flavoproteins.Although AIF was originally discovered as a caspase-independent cell death effector, bioenergetic roles of AIF, particularly relating to complex I functions, have since emerged Effects of AIF on WSSV proliferation and apoptosis. To ascertain whether AIF is involved in the immune response of mud crab, the expression profile of AIF was determined after WSSV challenge using Western blot and qPCR analyses. The results revealed that AIF was significantly elevated at 24 and 48 hours post-WSSV challenge . In order to. .e. caspase-independent fragmentation of chromosomal DNA (By similarity). Binds to DNA in a sequence-independent manner (PubMed: 27178839) Apoptosis was caused by the mitochondrial release and nuclear translocation of AIF and/or EndoG, leading to nuclear DNA fragmentation. However, the mitochondrion-related CytC-caspase-9/3 pathway was not activated Cell death induced by poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) and mediated by apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is well-characterized in models of ischemic tissue injury, but their roles in cancer cell death after chemotherapy are less understood. Here we investigated the roles of PAR and AIF by RNA interference (RNAi) in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells after chemotherapy
Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is a bifunctional flavoprotein with NADH oxidase activity with a vital function in bioenergetics and redox metabolism while also inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. The gene is localized on chromosome human X (q25-26) Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a NADH oxidase with a local redox function that is essential for optimal oxidative phosphorylation and for an efficient anti-oxidant defense. The absence of AIF can cause neurodegeneration, skeleton muscle atrophy and dilated cardiomyopathy. In many models of apoptosis, AIF translocates to the nucleus, where it induces chromatin condensation and DNA degradation
AIF is an NAD(P)H oxidase with oxidoreductase activity. AIF was first identified as a flavoprotein and acts as a mitochondrial effector of apoptosis. Studies have indicated that AIF plays various roles in apoptosis, electron transport, and ferredoxin metabolism, etc Role of apoptosis-inducing factor (Aif) in the T cell lineage Savit B Prabhu 1, Jasneet K Khalsa 1, Hridesh Banerjee 2, Abhishek Das 3, Smita Srivastava 4, Hamid R Mattoo 5, Krishnamurthy Thyagarajan 6, Shalini Tanwar 1, Deepika S Das 1, Subeer S Majumdar 1, Anna George 1, Vineeta Bal 1, Jeannine M Durdik 7, Satyajit Rath 1 1 National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, India 2 National. Apoptosis is a strictly regulated process essential for preservation of tissue homeostasis. This study aimed to evaluate expression of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) in testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) and to correlate expression patterns with clinicopathological variables. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded specimens of non-neoplastic testicular tissue and GCTs obtained from 216 patients. The second group consists of AIF (Apoptosis-Inducing Factor), endonuclease G and CAD (Caspase-Activated DNAse). AIF transfers to the nucleus and causes DNA fragmentation into ∼50-300 kb pieces and condensation of peripheral nuclear chromatin . This early form of nuclear condensation is referred to as Stage I condensation  . AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor) OMNI 3. And procaspases like procaspase-3 and caspase-2 Cytochrome c binds with Apaf-1, which then associates with procaspase-9. This triggers caspase-9 activation. The complex of cytochrome c-Apaf-1-caspase-9 then activates caspase-3 proteolytically. AIF also processes procaspase-3 to initiate caspase-3.
AIF is a flavoprotein critical for the normal function of mitochondria, which not only act as the cell's powerhouse but also as an oxygen sensor in hypoxia. To determine whether AIF induces apoptosis at least partly through Bnip3, we analyzed AIF y/+ and AIF y/− EBs cultured for 3- Released proteins include cytochrome c (Yang and Cortopassi 1998), apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) (Susin et al., 1999) and endonuclease G (Li et al., 2001; van Loo et al., 2001). Cytochrome c in conjunction with apoptosis protease activating factor (APAF-1) and pro-caspase 9 form an 'apoptosome' (Zou et al., 1999). This complex promotes. AIF-mediated PCD has been observed in roundworms (Caenorhabditis elegans) and in a cellular slime mold (Dictyostelium discoideum) , which suggests that the AIF pathway is a phylogenetically primitive form of apoptosis
Anti-AIF (Apoptosis Inducing Factor) Antibody detects level of AIF (Apoptosis Inducing Factor) & has been published & validated for use in WB. This gene encodes a flavoprotein essential for nuclear disassembly in apoptotic cells that is found in the mitochondrial intermembrane space in healthy cells Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) exhibits reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating NADH oxidase activity of unknown significance, which is dispensable for apoptosis. We knocked out the aif gene in two human colon carcinoma cell lines that displayed lower mitochondrial complex I oxidoreductase activity and produced less ROS, but showed increased.
BAY 43-9006 but not the MAP/ERK kinase inhibitors PD98059 or U0126 induced the nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) in A2058 and SKMEL5 cells, and the introduction of a small interfering RNA (siRNA) for AIF partially protected these cells from BAY 43-9006-induced apoptosis. The AIF siRNA had little effect in A375 cells, in. AIF translocates to the nucleus when apoptosis is induced and induces mitochondria to release the apoptogenic proteins cytochrome c and caspase-9. AIF induces chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation, which are the hallmarks of apoptosis, of the isolated nucleus and the nucleus in live cells by microinjection
apoptotic morphology, in the absence of caspase activity. Alternative mediators and mechanisms of physiological cell References death are proposed, including Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF), oxygen free radicals, Bax and Bak, and death by 1 The same linear correlation clonal antibody against AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor) and between visual scoring and computer image analysis has also been horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibodies were reported from other laboratories [24,25] Furthermore, a reduction in mitochondrial transmembrane potential has been reported to accompany AIF release and early apoptosis [15, 16]. AIF is a ubiquitously expressed flavoprotein with significant homology to bacterial oxidoreductases and has NADH oxidase activity (cytochrome c) and AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor) (Martinou and Green, 2001). AIF was initially thought to be located in the intermembrane space of mitochondria in a 57 kDa soluble form (Susin et al., 1999). However, Otera et al. (2005) showed that mature AIF, which contains a hydro-phobic transmembrane segment, is a 62 kDa type-I inne Below are ELISA kits for the investigation of Aif, another term for apoptosis inducing factor mitochondria associated 1. In humans this protein is encoded by the gene, AIFM1. The gene is also conserved in other species, including: mouse, rat, zebrafish, frog
Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a mitochondrial flavoprotein with dual roles in redox signaling and programmed cell death. Deficiency in AIF is known to result in defective oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), via loss of complex I activity and assembly in other tissues. Because the kidney relies on OXPHOS for metabolic homeostasis, we hypothesized that a decrease in AIF would result in. 1. Introduction. Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, plays an important role in cardiovascular disease. 1-3 Although the caspases are thought to be central elements in the apoptotic programme, recent data indicate that apoptosis may also be mediated by caspase-independent mechanisms involving pro-apoptotic mitochondrial factors, such as apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). 4-9 AIF, an NADH.
Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a protein that is normally located in the intermembrane space of mitochondria. When the cell receives a signal telling it that it is time to die, AIF is released from the mitochondria (like the release of cytochrome c in the first pathway); migrates into the nucleus; binds to DNA, whic Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a mitochondrial flavoprotein with NADH oxidase activity that has a vital function in healthy cells but is also an important mediator of caspase-independent programmed cell death in stressed and damaged cells. Here, we generated a truncated AIF derivative (AIFΔ100) that lacks the mitochondrial import signal of the protein AIF Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (n.). 1. A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondriaIn mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family Apoptosis-inducing factor. The best documented example of caspase-independent apoptosis involves AIF, 41-43), 45), 46) AIF is a flavoprotein localized in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and is required for oxidative phosphorylation
Results AIF and Caspase-12 Are Activated During Apoptosis in rd1 Retinas.. To investigate which apoptotic pathway is activated during the degenerative process in rd1 retinas, we analyzed changes in subcellular localization of two factors involved in intrinsic apoptotic signals, AIF and caspase-12. Based on our analysis of apoptosis progression and on other reports (), we chose P11 for all our. Evidence can be found for AIF-mediated apoptosis of coronary endothelium in response to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Zhang et al, 2004), but still unexplored is the role of AIF in hypoxic-ischemic injury of cerebral endothelium. Under some conditions, AIF may be a key downstream effector of PARP-1-mediated cell death Apoptosis (Programmed Cell Death) Markers . Apoptosis (Greek: apo - from, ptosis - falling; commonly pronounced with a silent second p) is a process of deliberate life relinquishment by a cell in a multicellular organism. It is one of the main types of programmed cell death (PCD), and involves an orchestrated series of biochemical events leading to a characteristic cell morphology and death Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), normally locates in the inner mitochondrial membrane and exert a cytoprotective role [17, 25, 26]. Recently, in contrast to its cytoprotective role in the mitochondria, AIF was found to translocate from the mitochondria to th The existence of non-caspase PCD pathways was corroborated by the discovery of caspase-independent executioners, such as the mitochondrial protein Apoptosis-Inducing Factor (AIF). Necrosis has often been viewed as an accidental and uncontrolled cell death process
Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a mitochondrial flavoprotein that mediates both NADH-oxidizing and caspase-independent apoptosis. Further, the proapoptotic activity of AIF is located in the C-terminus of AIF, although the precise minimum sequence responsible for apoptosis induction remains to be investigated. In th Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) was identified as a major player in caspase-independent cell death. It induces chromatin condensation and initial DNA cleavage via an unknown molecular mechanism. Here we report the crystal structure of human AIF at 1.8 A resolution. The structure reveals the presence of a strong positive electrostatic potential. AIF translocation is required for matrine-induced ciPCD.(A-B) HepG2 cells were transfected with AIF siRNA (40 or 60 nM) or non-targeted siRNA for 24 hrs, and then treated with matrine at 1.5 mg/ml for 24 hrs.(A) AIF expression levels were detected by western blot analysis using an anti-AIF antibody. Actin was used as a protein loading control. (B) Cells were stained with Annexin V/PI to assess. Furthermore, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a key factor in caspase-independent cell death , which is anchored to the outer face of the inner mitochondrial membrane. In response to apoptotic stimuli, AIF is released into the cytosol and translocates to the nucleus, where it induces chromatin condensation and large-scale DNA fragmentation.
Apoptosis is a beneficial and important phenomenon: In embryo 1. During embryonic development, help to digit formation. Lack of apoptosis in humans can lead to webbed fingers called syndactyly . 15 16. 2. Normal event in development of the nervous system 16 17 and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) into the cytosol . Thus, it is reasonable to assume that the mitochondrial pathway plays a key role inTetrahymena PND. Indeed, mitochondria play key roles in a number of apoptotic and programmed cell death (PCD) processes in animals, such as morphogenesis, tissue homeostasis, and immu-nity  Several of these proteins participate in apoptosis, including cytochrome c, procaspases 2, 3, and 9, and AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor). AIF has been shown to cause DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation and to induce the release of cytochrome c and caspase-9 from mitochondria As the process triggering apoptosis involves the mitochondrial release of AIF through the mitochondrial membrane, which enters the cytosol, and finally ends up in the cell nucleus where it signals the cell to condense its chromosomes and fragment its DNA molecules in order to prepare for cell death 1GV4. PubMed Abstract: Mitochondria play a key role in apoptosis due to their capacity to release potentially lethal proteins. One of these latent death factors is cytochrome c, which can stimulate the proteolytic activation of caspase zymogens. Another important protein is apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), a flavoprotein that can stimulate a.
AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor) was initially discovered as a protein involved in caspase-independent cell death. It is now known that AIF has both vital and lethal functions (reviewed in Modjtahedi et al, 2006). In healthy cells, AIF is a flavoprotein present in the mitochondria where it has vital roles in cellular redox metabolism and. Schemes of the mechanism of the 1-NP-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity in RAW264.7 cells. After RAW264.7 macrophages were incubated with 1-NP, it caused downregulation of cell viability via upregulation of apoptosis. 1-NP induced apoptosis by inducing AIF nuclear translocation, which was caused by mitochondrial dysfunction
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): ABSTRACT Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is a novel apoptotic effector protein that induces chromatin condensation and large-scale ( 50 kbp) DNA fragmentation when added to purified nuclei in vitro. Confocal and electron microscopy reveal that, in normal cells, AIF is strictly confined to mitochondria and thus. Silencing AIF can remarkable attenuated ART-induced apoptosis. Collectively, ART induces apoptosis by caspase-independent intrinsic pathway in A549 cells. <P /> Artesunate (ART), a semi-synthetic derivative of the sesquiterpene artemisinin extracted from the Chinese herb Artemisia annua, exerts a broad spectrum of clinical activity against. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), a key regulator of cell death, is essential for normal mammalian development and participates in pathological apoptosis. The proapoptotic nature of AIF and its mode of action are controversial. Here, we show that the yeast AIF homologue Ynr074cp controls yeast apoptosis. Similar to mammalian AIF, Ynr074cp is located in mitochondria and translocates to the. Apoptosis and AIF excretion were analyzed in glo-merularvisceralepithelialcells(podocyte)inallgroupsin thisstudy.ApoptosisandAIFexpressioninthepositiv
Apoptosis ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used application for detecting and quantifying proteins and antigens from various samples. Target-specific ELISA kits are available from a variety of manufacturers and can help streamline your immunodetection experiments. Apoptosis ELISA Kits AIF antibody Rabbit Polyclonal from Proteintech validated in Western Blot (WB), Immunoprecipitation (IP), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Immunofluorescence (IF),Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) applications. This antibody reacts with human, mouse, rat samples. Cat.No. 17984-1-AP. KD/KO Validated There are other pathways through which apoptosis may be initiated as illustrated. Figure 25 .Cellular decision plan for an injured cell. Refer to the previous figure for a key to the protein components. DNA Damage Death Receptor Stimulation p53 Stabilization C-8 Activation Bax, Puma, Noxa Bid MPT / MOMP Cyt-c, Smac, AIF Release In more. Background: AIF. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF, also known as programmed cell death protein 8) is a 58 kDa member of the FAD-dependent oxidoreductase family of molecules. It is ubiquitously expressed and found in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. AIF likely acts as a mitochondrial antioxidant providing protection via NADH oxidase activity
AIF translocates to the nucleus when apoptosis is induced and induces mitochondria to release the apoptogenic proteins cytochrome c and caspase-9. AIF induces chromatin condensation and large scale DNA fragmentation, which are the hallmarks of apoptosis, of the isolated nucleus and the nucleus in live cells by microinjection and apoptosis stimuli Apoptosis-Inducing Factor 1, AIF, AIFM1, AIFM1_HUMAN, Apoptosis-Inducing Factor 1 mitochondrial, PDCD8, Programmed cell death protein 8 Note: Trial size at 30 ug is available for $75