Zygomaticomaxillary Complex (ZMC) fractures result from blunt trauma to the periorbital area (viz. malar eminence). ZMC fractures are also referred to as tripod, trimalar, tetrapod, quadripod, or malar fractures. Etiologies reported in the literature include high-risk activities, such as road traffic accidents, civilian warfare, assaults or. A blowout Fracture of the orbital floor is defined as a fracture of the orbital floor in which the inferior orbital rim is intact. Etiology Fractures of the orbital floor are common: it is estimated that about 10% of all facial fractures are isolated orbital wall fractures (the majority of these being the orbital floor), and that 30-40% of all.
A Le Fort II fracture also involves a fracture through the orbital rim and floor, as seen at the medial extent of most ZMC fractures, whereas a Le Fort III involves a fracture of the zygomatic-frontal and zygomatic-sphenoid junctions, as seen at the lateral and posterior extent of most ZMC fractures. Figure 3. Le Fort I fracture in sagittal plane Zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures Under-reduced frontozygomatic fracture (Converse, Clin Plast Surg 1975) Failure to resuspend midface following subperiosteal dissection, resulting in midface ptosis and lateral canthal dystopia (Lee 2008) ( Figure 6
Note the small ZMC fracture on the right side (arrow) Figure 2: Motility photos two months after initial injury. Note the abduction deficit in the right eye and conjunctival vessel dilation nasally of the right eye. Figure 3: External Examination four months after initial injury. Note the dilated veins on the upper and lower right eyelids as. A Tale of Two Patients. The downside of rushing in. Observation might have led to a different outcome for a young man who ended up in Dr. Cho's office after multiple surgeries to treat injuries suffered in a car crash.The patient had a zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fracture with involvement of the orbital floor, which had been repaired by the referring service (not an oculoplastic surgeon) Historically, fractures involving the zygoma, maxillary arch, and orbital rim/lateral wall were known as tripod fractures, although tetrapod fractures is probably a more accurate description (Figure 10a). Also known as zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures, these fractures are commonly associated with facial trauma and are most often. Figure 1 below shows a fracture of the left sphenoid sinus in the area of the left optic canal. Though not well shown in these images, the patient was also found to have a left medial orbital wall fracture, a left orbital roof fracture extending through the left frontal sinus, and a partial, nondisplaced left zygomaticomaxillary (ZMC) fracture Orbital blowout fractures occur when there is a fracture of one of the walls of orbit but the orbital rim remains intact. This is typically caused by a direct blow to the central orbit from a fist or ball. Epidemiology The blowout fracture is t..
An exophthalmometer is an instrument used for measuring the degree of forward displacement of the eye in exophthalmos.The device allows measurement of the forward distance of the lateral orbital rim to the front of the cornea. Exophthalmometers can also identify enophthalmos (retraction of the eye into the orbit), a sign of blow-out fracture or certain neoplasms 1.. IntroductionLateral orbital wall fractures are commonly seen with zygomatic malar complex (ZMC) fractures. Lateral orbital wall fractures most frequently occur as a result of road traffic accidents followed by assault, work and sport accidents (Cerulli et al., 2002).In elderly patients, falls are the most common cause (Rehman and Edmondson, 2002)
Correction of Lateral Orbital Wall Fractures Parit A. Patel DEFINITION Of the seven bones that make up the orbit, the lateral orbit is composed mainly of the zygomatic bone. Fractures of the lateral orbit can result in expansion of the orbital volume with subsequent enophthalmos and orbital dystopia. Open reduction and internal fixation of th Orbital fractures may be defined in terms of anatomic considerations, including the following: Fractures may be limited to the internal orbital skeleton. This type includes blow-out and blow-in. PubMed® comprises more than 32 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites . Visual acuities were 20/25 OD and 20/40-2 pinhole to 20/30 OS. Pupils were equal, round and reactive to light with no afferent pupillary defect OU. Intraocular pressures were 13mm Hg OD and 15mm Hg OS. Slit lamp exam was unremarkable
Angle recession is typically diagnosed by means of gonioscopy. The clinical appearance of the affected angle varies with the depth of the tear in the ciliary body and with the amount of time passed after the injury. Typically, an irregularly wide ciliary body band is visible with retroplacement of the iris root Exophthalmos & Orbital Cellulitis Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Acute Sinusitis. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search Ethmoid Sinusitis & Facial Edema & Sinus Opacification Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Rhinocerebral Mucormycosis. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search Describe the mechanisms and indications for treatment of more advanced orbital trauma (eg, zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures, naso-orbital ethmoid fractures, Le Fort fractures). 5. Identify, evaluate, and treat thyroid ophthalmopathy (eg, epidemiology, symptoms and signs, associated systemic diseases, orbital imaging, differential diagnosis.