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Flexor tendon injury zones

Zone classification of flexor tendon injury Radiology

Overview flexor tendon injuries are a traumatic condition classified by the zone of injury (see table below) basic concepts in repair are similar for different zones location of laceration directly affects healing potentia Zone II Flexor Tendon Injuries: From No Man's Land to No Man Left Behind! Flexor tendons give the hand its most important function to hold and grasp objects. The tendons begin their journey from the muscles in the forearm and then travel to the fingertips 10.1055/b-0040-177420 5 Flexor Tendon Injuries (Zone 3-5)Derek L. Masden Abstract Flexor tendon injuries within zones 3 to 5 represent those confined to the palm and distal forearm. They can be debilitating with resultant loss of basic hand function. A thorough understanding of the anatomy, surgical approach, reconstructive options, and rehabilitation is required to provide th Flexor Tendon Zones Flexor tendon injuries are divided into open and closed injuries. Open injuries are the result of lacerations and penetrating trauma in which the skin and soft tissues overlying the flexor tendons are violated. Closed injuries occur when the overlying soft tissues are intact

Flexor Tendon Zones of Hand | Bone and Spine

Physical Therapy Zones 2-5 Flexor tendon repair Protocol Timeline Splint Therapeutic Exercise Precautions Other Week 0-3 Dorsal Blocking Splint a. Wrist neutral b. sMCP's 50° flexion c. IP's in full extension Reminder: If FDP of MF, RF, or SF repaired, must include all three digits in splint. Home exercise program: 1 Flexor Zone five extends from distal wrist crease to the flexor musculotendinous junction as described by Verdan in 1959 [3]. This is the most exposed and so the most vulnerable zone for injuries. Extensive injuries to flexor tendons and surrounding structures are sometimes referred to as spaghetti wrist [4]. Th Acute zone I flexor tendon injuries are a commonly encountered condition caused by either an avulsion of the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon from its insertion on the distal phalanx of the finger (the so-called jersey finger) or a laceration of the FDP tendon distal to the insertion of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) tendon

Flexor Tendon Zones (Verdan zones) • Zone I extends from just distal to the insertion of the sublimis tendon to the site of insertion of the profundus tendon. • Zone II is in the critical area of pulleys (Bunnell's no man's land) between the distal palmar crease and the insertion of the sublimis tendon PRESENTATION OF FLEXOR TENDON INJURY AND ASSESSMENT. The symptoms that a patient will present with if the person has a flexor tendon injury are include not being able to bend the finger, pain when bending the finger or localised swelling and open cuts. Tendon injuries can occur in all 5 zones of the hand

Kleinert and Verdan described five flexor tendon zones on the palmar aspect of the hand, based on anatomic differences and healing potential (Fig. 15-1) (4, 5). Zone II spans from the proximal aspect of the A1 pulley to the insertion of the FDS on the middle phalanx and can be further divided into subzone A through D (11) (Fig. 15-2) The symptoms that a patient will present with if the person has a flexor tendon injury are include not being able to bend the finger, pain when bending the finger or localised swelling and open cuts. Tendon injuries can occur in all 5 zones of the hand

Flexor Tendon Injuries - Hand - Orthobullet

Zone I flexor tendon injuries occur distal to the insertion of the FDS tendon. Zone II injuries are located from the proximal edge of the fibroosseous flexor tendon canal to the insertion of the FDS. Zone III injuries occur in the area where the lumbricals arise from the FDP tendon in the midpalm Flexor tendon injuries are some of the more common injuries, but yet complex injuries managed by hand surgeons. The flexor tendon mechanism plays a key role in the functionality of the hand. Physiotherapists and occupational therapists are often involved and play a key role in the post-surgical rehabilitation of flexor tendon repairs. A good understanding of the treatment procedures, healing. Primary repair should occur within 12hr; secondary repair can occur up to 4wk after injury. Hand surgeon should repair all flexor tendon lacerations. If hand surgeon is not immediately available: Irrigate open wounds and close with 5-0 nylon. Most advocate antibiotics. Splint hand with: Wrist in 30 deg of flexion Flexor tendons of hand are divided into five zones: Zone I: Extends from finger top to insertion of flexor digitorum superficialis. Zone II: This extends from insertion of flexor digitorum superficialis up to distal palmar crease. Zone III: Extends from distal palmar crease up to flexor retinaculum

Flexor tendons are divided into five zones ( Fig. 14.1). Fig. 14.1 Zones of flexor tendon injuries. Zone 1, distal to FDS insertion; Zone 2, proximal aspect of A1 pulley to FDS insertion; Zone 3, end of carpal tunnel to start of A1; Zone 4, carpal tunnel; Zone 5, forearm to carpal tunnel; T1, T2, T3: thumb zones Many of the principles of flexor tendon repair and rehabilitation can be applied to zones III-V. Injuries in zones III-V are rarely isolated and neurovascular involvement is common. Because of the often extensive and unknown degree of injury, there should be a low threshold for surgical wound explor Flexor tendon injuries in adults differ from those in children. 38 children (22 male and 16 female) with a mean age of 6.7 years were treated for flexor tendon injuries by primary suture and controlled mobilization between 1985 and 1992. 53 flexor tendons were injured (average 1.5 digits per patient) and the injury most commonly affected the little finger (23 patients). 60% of injuries occurred in zone 2 Flexor Tendon Injury Zones. A distal-to-proximal 5-zone (I-V) classification system has been developed based on location, treatment considerations and prognosis [6]. The thumb flexor tendon injury zones differ from the fingers as the thumb has one less phalanx Treatment of Flexor Tendon Injury. The flexor tendon injury treatment is based on the zone of injury. Partial lacerations < 60% of flexor tendon width may not need a surgical repair, but may be associated with gap formation or triggering. Strickland stressed six characteristics of an ideal flexor tendon repair: Easy placement of sutures in the.

Zone II Flexor Tendon Injuries Kleinert Kutz Hand Care

  1. Zone II Flexor Injuries. - Discussion: - see flexor tendon repair. - see FDP lacerations: FDS and FDP. - almost all tendon injuries in zone 2 are due to lacerations; - this is where 2 tendons enter fibro-osseuous tunnel at mid-palm level; - once the FDS and FDP tendons enter flexor tendon sheath, the FDS separates into 2 segments, which pass.
  2. Figure A: Zones of tendon injury in the fingers and thumb—Zone II is associated with increased difficulty and poorer outcomes. Figure B: Brunner incisions utilized to surgically approach laceration. A torn or cut tendon in the forearm, at the wrist, in the palm, or along the finger will make it impossible to bend one or more joints in a finger
  3. Twenty-five flexor tendons in 20 patients were reconstructed using a two-stage reconstruction of the flexor tendon injury. The preoperative condition of the finger was evaluated using Boyes and Stark grading modified by Wehbe et al. and all had a poor prognosis. The primary tendon injury was missed in nine patients
  4. Flexor tendon injuries of the hand are uncommon, and they are among the most challenging orthopaedic injuries to manage. Proper management is essential to ensure optimal outcomes. Consistent, successful management of flexor tendon injuries relies on understanding the anatomy, characteristics and repair of tendons in the different zones, potential complications, rehabilitation protocols, recent.
  5. Flexor tendon injuries, resulting from fibre rupture or tearing, range from mild to severe. Horses will present with varying degrees of lameness, which may not be obvious immediately after the injury - i.e. inflammation, heat and swelling over the affected site
  6. Flexor tendon injuries should be treated surgically expeditiously (within about 7 days of initial injury) to ensure the best results and a functional outcome. With the passage of time, the proximal edge of the lacerated tendon retracts further proximally; also, adhesions begin to form between the tendon and nearby structures
  7. •Havenhill T, BirnieR. Pediatric Flexor Tendon Injuries. Han Clin 2004. •Piper S, Wheeler L, Mills J, Ezaki M, Oishi S. Outcomes After Primary Repair and Staged Reconstruction of Zone I and II Flexor Tendon Injuries in Children J Pediatr Orthop2019. •Al-Qattan M. Zone I flexor profundus tendon repair in children 5-10 year

FLEXOR TENDON REPAIR PROTOCOL (Zone 1 & 2) Daniel J. Marek, MD . Phone: 952-314-0771 . Fax: 952-442-2029 . DanielMarekMD.com . Zone 1 - Passive Motion . Important instructions following surgery: • After surgery, the wrist and hand will be in a light dressing or possibly splint. Please DO NOT remove this for the first 1-3 days While these are not involved in finger flexion, per se, because of their proximity to the flexor tendons, they may also be injured when the flexor tendons are lacerated. Injuries to the flexor tendons can be classified by the general location of the injury. Five zones have thus been identified. The first zone is distal to the FDS insertion

5 Flexor Tendon Injuries (Zone 3-5) Plastic Surgery Ke

Part 1: Flexor tendon injuries Anatomy. There are two flexor tendons for each finger and one for the thumb. The flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) are the flexor tendons of the fingers, and the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) is the only thumb flexor.. The flexor tendons travel distally from the forearm through the carpal tunnel and are named based on the. 1. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2014 Dec;22(12):791-9. doi: 10.5435/JAAOS-22-12-791. Update on Zone II Flexor Tendon Injuries. Dy CJ, Daluiski A. Flexor tendon repair in zone II is particularly challenging because tendon gliding must be restored within a tight fibro-osseous sheath while minimizing the formation of adhesions in surrounding tissues History has shown that injuries located in zone II of the hand, classified between the distal palmar crease and the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) insertion, have been particularly challenging to repair. This is due to the fact that tendon gliding must be restored within a tight sheath while minimizing the adhesions in surrounding tissues

Flexor Tendon Injuries: Treatment Principles Fig. 3 Blood supply to the flexor tendons within the digital sheath. The segmental vascu-lar supply to the flexor tendons is by means of long and short vincular connections. The vin-culum brevis superficialis (VBS) and the vinculum brevis profundus (VBP) consist of smal Dynamic traction and passive mobilization for the rehabilitation of zone II flexor tendon injuries: a modified regime 2005. Level IV—retrospective, case-series. 8 patients, 15 digits. 28 tendons (only 25 of 28 tendons repaired—3 not repaired due to bulkiness that could prevent tendon gliding) Zone II: Dynamic traction and passive motio Zone 1 flexor tendon avulsion and laceration injuries are commonly managed by plastic surgeons. These injuries are traditionally repaired using the button pullout technique originally described by Bunnell in 1940. The morbidity related to this method is well documented and this has lead to the development of alternative repair methods. These include modifications of the pullout button.

Extensor Tendon Injuries are traumatic injuries to the extensor tendons that can be caused by laceration, trauma, or overuse. Diagnosis is made clinically by physical examination and performing various provocative tests depending on the location of the injury. Treatment can be nonoperative or operative depending on the zone of injury Injury to the flexor tendons of the fingers of the hand is a frequent and disabling injury, since it produces tendon retraction and functional limitation. A prompt and adequate diagnosis and treatment is required to minimize the risk of tendon retraction, re-rupture, reoperation rate, and the presence of tendon adhesions that limit the range of. Avulsion injury of the FDP tendon represents a flexor tendon injury within zone 1 of the flexor tendon sheath, defined as distal to the inser-tion of the flexor digitorum superfi-cialis tendon and includes the C3 and A5 pulleys.1,11 The regional anat-omy of the pulley and vincular sys-tems (Figures 1 and 2) affects both the level of FDP tendon.

Flexor Tendon Injuries - Radsourc

As with the extensor tendon apparatus, a division of the flexor tendons into multiple zones has been established based on the distinct anatomic differences responsible for different prognoses of otherwise identical tendon injuries (, 28). The flexor tendons are divided into five zones The most common signs of a flexor tendon injury include: An open injury, such as a cut, on the palm side of your hand, often where the skin folds as the finger bends. An inability to bend one or more joints of your finger. Pain when your finger is bent. Tenderness along your finger on the palm side of your hand. Numbness in your fingertip We report on the outcomes of flexor tendon repair in zone 2 subzones with early active mobilization in 102 fingers in 88 consecutive patients. There were 28, 53, 15, and six fingers with repairs in zones 2A to 2D, respectively. Rupture of the repair occurred in four fingers, all in zone 2B This course will review considerations a therapist must address during evaluation and treatment of complex zone 2 injuries. To begin the course, a review of the evolution of flexor tendon rehabilitation and current evidence will be presented. Following this, pertinent questions a therapist must ask th 1. Flexor Tendon Injuries. 2. Flexor Tendon Injuries • Restoration of satisfactory digital function after flexor tendon lacerations remains one of the most challenging problems in hand surgery • Prior to the 1960's tendons lacerated in no man's land were not repaired in favor of delayed grafting. 3

flexor tendon injuries in the all zones of the hand admitted to our hospital were included into the study. Fractures which were uncomplicated and nerve injures were included in the study, while extensor tendon injuries were excluded from the study. The damaged tendons were repaired by modified Kessler' method by using double stranded core. Flexor tendon injuries account for <1% of all hand injuries. 1 Management of these injuries often poses a surgical challenge because the results remain unpredictable results despite the best efforts. The management in view of zone 2 flexor tendon injuries, is a highly debatable topic

Zone 1 Flexor Tendon Injuries Musculoskeletal Ke

Flexor Tendon Injuries — OrthopaedicPrinciples

In their study from Cairo, Egypt, Bekhet et al. report their experience using ultrasound (US) to examine tendon integrity in the setting of suspected flexor tendon injury. A single musculoskeletal radiologist performed diagnostic US in 35 patients with trauma to the ventral surface of the hand or wrist; a total of 50 tendons were evaluated. Flexor tendon injuries are seen commonly yet the management protocols are still widely debated. The advances in suture techniques, better understanding of the tendon morphology and its biomechanics have resulted in better outcomes. There has been a trend toward the active mobilization protocols with development of multistrand core suture techniques. Zone 2 injuries remain an enigma for the. Acute repair of zone 2 flexor tendon injuries is indicated when there is a clean-cut injury with the following findings: • Completely divided flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) and/or flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) • Partial flexor tendon injury involving greater than 60% of the tendon substance. • Minimal wound contamination N2 - Background: Evidence surrounding the impact of concomitant digital nerve injury on the outcome of zone 2 flexor tendon repair is sparse and conflicting. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of digital nerve injury on the range of motion recovery after zone 2 flexor tendon repair INTRODUCTION. Rupture of the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon from its distal attachment is commonly known as jersey finger. This injury occurs most often in athletes involved in contact sports, such as American football or rugby [].The injury is often overlooked by players and trainers and misdiagnosed as a jammed or sprained finger, but requires more urgent management than these.

The quality of the outcome following flexor tendon repair is highly dependent on the rehabilitation received. Published research into flexor tendon injuries has spanned almost half a century Correctly identify flexor tendon zones and extensor tendon zones and importance for rehabilitation. Recognize the biomechanical importance of the flexor pulley system and the extensor mechanism. Correctly evaluate following injury or surgery DOI: 10.1016/j.bjps.2013.04.026 Corpus ID: 36861242. Zone 1 flexor tendon injuries: a review of the current treatment options for acute injuries. @article{Huq2013Zone1F, title={Zone 1 flexor tendon injuries: a review of the current treatment options for acute injuries.}, author={S. Huq and S. George and D. Boyce}, journal={Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS}, year.

Injury of flexor muscle, fascia and tendon of other and unspecified finger at wrist and hand level Code History 2016 (effective 10/1/2015) : New code (first year of non-draft ICD-10-CM It has been estimated that in the United States, flexor tendon lacerations cost the medical system $240.8 to $409.1 million annually, with a total direct cost of $13,725 per injury and indirect costs ranging from $60,786 to $112,888 per injury on a newly repaired tendon will increase rupture potential Therapy should be adjusted according to extent of injuries, tissue response and specific patient factors Primary Flexor Tendon Repair Protocol for Zone 1 & 2, ,Approved by A. Hunter, G. Kasparyan, M. Song & E. Tolo, 8_2017 Zone V-VIII (~75 minutes) Thumb Extensors (~60 Minutes) Flexor Tendons. Flexor Tendon Anatomy & Biomechanics (~60 minutes) Flexor Tendon Zone I & II (~75 minutes) FPL Repairs, Tenolysis & Tendon Grafts (~75 minutes) Pitfalls in Flexor Tendon Rehab (~75 minutes) Syndrome of Quadriga. Flexor Quadriga; Extensor Quadriga (~45 Minutes) Injurie

In zone 2-5 flexor tendon repair using duran protocol, when and in what position should the dorsal blocking splint be placed. apply by day 1- 3. Wrist 20 - 30 degrees of flexion (except zone IV wrist at neutral to prevent bow-stringing of wrist flexors and due to increased risk of adhesions) MPJ's 50 degrees Zone I contains only the FDP tendon and extends from the insertion of the FDP to the insertion of the FDS tendon.; Zone II is the area extending from the insertion of the FDS tendon to the distal palmar crease (proximal end of the A1 pulley). This area is also known as 'No-Man's land', due to the shared flexor sheath and a higher risk of adhesions Citation: Khaled NA, Serry MA, Basyoni Y and Mansour W. Repair of Acute zone II flexor tendon injuries using a wide awake technique in the hand. J Orthopedics Rheumatol. 2018; 5(2): 11. J Orthopedics Rheumatol 5(2): 11 (2018) Page - 02 ISSN: 2334-2846 Mutilated hand injuries. Associated fractures close to the tendon injury. Vascular injury requiring revascularizatio Zone 1, FDP Flexor Tendon Repair Protocol The intent of this protocol is to provide the clinician with a guideline for the post-operative rehabilitation course of a patient that has undergone a flexor tendon repair. It is by no means intended to be a substitute for one's clinical decision-making regarding the progression of Zone II flexor tendon rehabilitation: a proposed algorithm. J Hand Ther. Oct-Dec. 2008) First 3 weeks post-op (beginning at 3-7 days post-op): use either passive (Duran's), dynamic traction (Kleinert's) or early active protocols, based o

Introduction: Flexor tendon injuries of the hand are common occurring these days and its management is still far from ideal. The functional outcome of zone 2 flexor tendon injuries are not good in view of higher incidence of adhesion formation. Numerous studies have been reported but yet nothing is deemed ideal. Objective: This study was conducted to see the results of primary repair of zone 2. Flexor tendon injuries can be challenging, especially in zone II. A strong repair using at least a 4-strand core suture and an associated epitendinous suture will allow for early rehabilitation, which can minimize the risk of adhesion formation

Flexor tendon injuries do not heal by themselves and frequently require surgery to put the injured tendon back to its normal position. When surgery is required, a splint and hand therapy may be used after the procedure to protect you and to aid in recovery. Typically, any additional injured structures are repaired at the same time as the tendon Injury that involves motor nerves at the level of muscle innervation as seen in extensor Zones VII and IX injuries would only occur with deep lacerations of the palm, which are relatively rare though not unheard of, with the intrinsics or with lacerations in the proximal forearm which are rare, with the flexor tendon muscles

Hand Flexor Tendon Laceration — Bone TalksFlexor and Extensor Tendon Laceration vs

An Overview of the Management of Flexor Tendon Injurie

Nuances of Flexor Tendon Rehabilitation. This series focuses on how a therapist might thoughtfully modify protocols based on a specific patient circumstance or zone injury. Explanations of how tendon healing occurs, definition of excursion, rationale for the ideal time to start early motion, and the role of suture strength and pulleys provide. Extensor tendon repairs can be done under a digital block (zones 1, 2, and 3) or a wrist block (zones 4 and 5). The use of a forearm tourniquet (placed distally over the nonmuscular portion of the forearm) will allow the patient to tolerate the tourniquet for a longer period (30 to 40 minutes) compared with the usual placement over the arm (20.

Zone II Flexor Tendon Repair Musculoskeletal Ke

DISCUSSION. Zone I tendon injuries are relatively common injuries that involve the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) from its insertion onto the distal phalanx base up to the insertion of the flexor digitorum superficialis onto the base of the middle phanax. 1 Patients present either at the time of injury or more usually further down the course of injury due to ongoing loss of function Extensor Tendon Injuries in the Hand 60 Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Fig. 1 The eight extensor tendon zones. T = thumb. I II III IV V VI VII VIII T I T II T III T IV T V Table 1 Miller's Classification of Result After Extensor Tendon Repair Total Total Extensor Flexor Result Lag Loss Excellent 0° 0° Good ≤10. Flexor Tendon Lacerations. Flexor tendon lacerations are open injuries usually resulting from lacerations of the volar aspect of the hand. Flexor tendon lacerations are classified into five zones [2, 15, 16]. A zone 1 injury involves an FDP tendon laceration distal to the FDS insertion ciples to guide the repair of a digital flexor tendon. This protocol is translated into English as follows. Indications and Inclusion of Patients The protocol is used for any zone 1 to 3 acute dig-ital flexor tendon injury, whether clean cut or with severe soft tissue injury, requiring direct repair, without a lengthy tendon defect. Operative.

Flexor Tendon Injury - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

  1. for all flexor tendon repairs, a view supported by Peck et al (1998) who suggests that every patient must be managed according to their individual needs and the variable characteristics of injury, surgical findings and lifestyles. 4 Controlled mobilization regimens are widely employed in rehabilitation after flexor tendon repair in the hand
  2. The most common flexor tendon injury is due to a sharp object (knife, saw, glass). Additionally, one can rupture a tendon when grabbing something or trying to tackle an opponent. The avulsion injury is called a jersey finger. This is an avulsion rather than a mid- substance tendon injury. Often this is thought to be a sprain as the.
  3. Flexor Tendon Injury Al Hess MD History • 131 AD -Galen ‐describes tendons and nerves as one. Advised against repair. • 980 AD -Avicenna -describes tendon repair • 1889 -Codivilla of Bologna -preserve the digital sheath • 1918 -Bunnell -Advised against repair in no man's land
  4. Flexor and Extensor Tendon Injuries of the Hand Dr. A.A.Rawoot Tygerberg Hospital 18 March 2009 Anatomy • Zone 1: FDS insertion to FDP insertion Zone 2: Zone 1 to proximal part of Al pulley • Zone 3: Zone 2 to distal edge of flexor retinaculu Zone 4: Within carpal tunnel Zone 5: Proximal to carpal tunnel Thumb Tl: FPL insertion to A2 pulle
  5. Explore Flexor Tendon Injuries. Used with permission from the American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Flexor tendons in the hand and forearm. The muscles that bend or flex the fingers are called flexor muscles. These flexor muscles move the fingers through cord-like extensions called tendons, which connect the muscles to bone
  6. Age, smoking, injury location, soft tissue damage, local vascular injury, and skeletal injury remain objective parameters and indicators of patient outcome. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the negative predictors of functional outcome in flexor tendon repairs, delay of surgery, age, smoking status, and zone of injury

Flexor Tendon Injuries - Physiopedi

  1. SS, Paksima N. Flexor Tendon Injuries. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2018 Jan 15;26(2):e26‐e35. Zafonte B1, Rendulic D1, Szabo RM2. Flexor pulley system: anatomy, injury, and management. J Hand Surg Am. 2014 Dec;39(12):2525‐32 Tang JB1. Release of the A4 pulley to facilitate zone II flexor tendon repair
  2. Closed tendon avulsion of both flexor tendons in the same finger is an extremely rare condition. We encountered the case of a patient who presented a rupture of the flexor digitorum profundus in zone 1 and flexor digitorum superficialis in zone 3 in the little finger. This occurrence has not been reported previously. We hereby present our case, make a review of the literature of avulsion of.
  3. Flexor Tendon Repair Zones 2-5 Protocol-Brigham and Women's Hospital . Phase I: Weeks 0-3. Splint: Dorsal blocking splint w/ wrist in neutral, MCP's at 50° flexion, IP's in full extension; Precautions: No active flexion of involved digits, passive wrist extension, or passive finger extension unless cleared, no functional use of involved hand
  4. ICD-10-CM Codes › S00-T88 Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes ; S60-S69 Injuries to the wrist, hand and fingers ; S66-Injury of muscle, fascia and tendon at wrist and hand level Injury of flexor muscle, fascia and tendon of other and unspecified finger at wrist and hand level S66.

Digital flexor tendon sheath pathology can be difficult to diagnose and treat successfully. Here's a look at Dr. Florent David's approach, which he presented at the 2019 NEAEP Symposium Clinical Trial Comparing Active and Passive Rehabilitation After Flexor Tendon Injury The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government zone II and III flexor tendon injuries, and their therapeutic effects were compared to explore a better suture method for flexor tendon repairs. Materials and methods General information This study was conducted in patients diag-nosed with zone II and III flexor tendon frac-tures in Zhenjiang Ruikang Hospital from January 2014 to December 2018

The classification of flexor tendon injuries, divides the flexor tendons into 5 zones based on tendon anatomy. The excursion of the Flexor Digitorum Profundus (FDP) and Flexor Digitorum Superficialis (FDS) flexor tendons in each zone is different. Besides, the anatomical relationship between flexor FDP and FDS change in every zone throughout. The flexor tendons are smooth, flexible, thick strings which bend your fingers - they look a bit like clothesline rope. They work like a bicycle brake cable to bend your fingers, sliding in and out of the finger as it straightens and bends. If a flexor tendon is cut in half, the end connected to the muscle is often pulled back into the palm - no way to heal on its own

4 Flexor Tendon Repair (Zone 2) | Plastic Surgery KeyGps flexor-tendon-talkCommon flexor tendon repair techniques

The most common flexor tendon injury mechanism is a laceration from a sharp object like a knife, saw, or glass. You can also rupture a tendon when grabbing something or trying to tackle an opponent, hence the common name for an avulsion injury: jersey finger. The hand has been described in zones. Zone II, which runs from the middle of. Baktir A, Tu¨rk CY, Kabak S, Sahin V, Kardas Y. Flexor tendon lander G. Improved results in zone 2 flexor tendon injuries repair in zone 2 followed by early active mobilization. J Hand with a modified technique of immediate controlled mobili- Surg Br. 1996;21:624-628 Update on Zone II Flexor Tendon Injuries active motion protocol).36 Another study found that function returned to near baseline by 6 months after zone II flexor tendon repair.39 Reported rates of patient satisfaction after flexor tendon repair have been relatively high, but satisfaction was greater after early active mobilization.3 Zone 2 flexor tendon injuries are common injuries following laceration. In this video we present a step-by-step guide for two cases, a primary repair, and a secondary reconstruction

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