PowerPoint als Download bei QualityHosting bestellen und direkt anwenden. Das komplette Paket: Word, Excel, Outlook, PowerPoint. Jetzt 30 Tage kostenlos Phenylketonuria Ppt 1. PHENYLKETONURIA DONE BY : BARAKATHU PEER FATHIMA INDIA 2. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive metabolic genetic disorder characterized by a mutation in the gene for the hepatic enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), rendering it nonfunctional
Phenylketonuria. 1. Overview • Autosomal recessive metabolic genetic disorder • Mutation in the gene for phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). • When PAH activity is reduced, phenylalanine accumulates and is converted into phenylpyruvate (phenylketone), which can be detected in the urine. 2 +91 958 232 7755; Products search. Searc
Phenylketonuria (fen-ul-key-toe-NU-ree-uh), also called PKU, is a rare inherited disorder that causes an amino acid called phenylalanine to build up in the body. PKU is caused by a defect in the gene that helps create the enzyme needed to break down phenylalanine Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a rare genetic condition that causes an amino acid called phenylalanine to build up in the body. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. Phenylalanine is found in. Globally, PKU has an incidence of around 1 in 20,000 newborns. The highest incidence of PKU is seen among white infants of European descent (1/5000 to 1/15,000 births). Mitchell JJ, Scriver CR Phenylketonuria is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a mutation in the gene that is responsible for coding of phenylalanine hydroxylase. A sustained phenylalanine concentration greater than 20 mg/dL (1,211 μmol/L) correlates with classical symptoms of phenylketonuria such as mental retardation, impaired head circumference growth, poor.
Phenylketonuria (commonly known as PKU) is an inherited disorder that increases the levels of a substance called phenylalanine in the blood. Phenylalanine is a building block of proteins (an amino acid) that is obtained through the diet.It is found in all proteins and in some artificial sweeteners Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D.; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Overview Pathophysiology Genetics. Classical PKU is caused by a defective gene for the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), which converts the amino acid phenylalanine to other essential compounds in the body. A rarer form of the disease occurs when PAH is normal but there is a defect in the biosynthesis or. Pathophysiology of phenylketonuria. Ment Retard Dev Disab Res Rev. 1999; 5:104-12. [Google Scholar] 35. Pietz J, Kreis R, Rupp A, Mayatepek E, Rating D, Boesch C, et al. Large neutral amino acids block phenylalanine transport into brain tissue in patients with phenylketonuria History. Most individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) appear normal at birth. If an affected patient does not undergo newborn screening or has false-negative results (rare), progressive developmental delay is the most common presentation. Other findings in untreated children in later infancy and childhood may include vomiting, mousy odor, eczema. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a rare but potentially serious inherited disorder. Our bodies break down the protein in foods, such as meat and fish, into amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. These amino acids are then used to make our own proteins. Any amino acids that are not needed are broken down further and removed from the body
Phenylketonuria or PKU is a rare metabolic disease that can lead to severe brain disorders caused by the accumulation of the amino acid phenylalanine to toxi.. INTRODUCTION. Phenylketonuria (PKU, MIM #261600) is a disorder affecting the aromatic amino acid, phenylalanine. It results from a deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) and, if untreated, results in irreversible intellectual disability among other clinical symptoms .An overview of PKU is presented here PKU is an autosomal recessive metabolic genetic disorder.As an autosomal recessive disorder, two PKU alleles are required for an individual to experience symptoms of the disease. For a child to inherit PKU, both the mother and father must have and pass on the defective gene. If both parents are carriers for PKU, there is a 25% chance any child they have will be born with the disorder, a 50%. Next: Background. Pathophysiology. In most patients, the classic type of PKU involves a deficiency of PAH that leads to increased levels of phenylalanine in the plasma (>1200 µmol/L; reference range, 35-90 µmol/L) and to excretion of phenylpyruvic acid (approximately 1 g/d) and phenylacetic acid in the urine. Phenylalanine hydroxylase.
Testing your baby after birth. A PKU test is done a day or two after your baby's birth. The test is done after your baby is 24 hours old and after your baby has ingested some protein in the diet to ensure accurate results.. A nurse or lab technician collects a few drops of blood from your baby's heel or the bend in your baby's arm . Decreased levels of Tyr may also play an adverse role since this amino acid is an important precursor of 3 catecholamine neurotransmitters: dopamine, norepinephrine, and adrenaline Phenylketonuria (commonly known as PKU) is an inherited disorder that increases the levels of a substance called phenylalanine in the blood. Phenylalanine is a building block of proteins (an amino acid) that is obtained through the diet.It is found in all proteins and in some artificial sweeteners.If PKU is not treated, phenylalanine can build up to harmful levels in the body, causing. Phenylketonuria is an inherited disorder of phenylalanine metabolism that can result in neurological dysfunction. This Primer reviews the epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis and management of PKU.
Hyperphenylalaninemia is broadly defined as the presence of blood phenylalanine levels that exceed the limits of the upper reference range (2 mg/dL or 120 mmol/L) but trail the levels found in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). Phenylalanine levels that exceed 20 mg/dL (1200 mmol/L) are considered diagnostic for PKU (see Phenylketonuria) Pathophysiology of Disease - An Introduction to Clinical Medicine, 7th Ed. Raquel Salazar. Stephen McPhee. Gary Hammer. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper. 22 Full PDFs related to this paper. Read Paper Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a type of amino acid metabolism disorder. It is inherited. If you have it, your body can't process phenylalanine (Phe). Phe is an amino acid, a building block of proteins. It is in almost all foods. If your Phe level gets too high, it can damage your brain and cause severe intellectual disability Start studying Study Questions: Chp. 19 Phenylketonuria (also includes PPT). Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools The clinical features of gout occur in response to monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. Gout should be considered a chronic disease of MSU crystal deposition. A number of pathophysiological checkpoints are required for development of gout. First, elevated urate concentrations are required: urate overproduction and underexcretion contribute to total urate balance
. Most people start developing symptoms during adulthood, between the ages of 30 to 50, but HD can also occur in children and young adults (known as juvenile HD or JHD) Read chapter 15 of Pediatric Endocrinology and Inborn Errors of Metabolism, 2e online now, exclusively on AccessPediatrics. AccessPediatrics is a subscription-based resource from McGraw Hill that features trusted medical content from the best minds in medicine
Protein misfolding is a common event in living cells. In young and healthy cells, the misfolded protein load is disposed of by protein quality control (PQC) systems. In aging cells and in cells from certain individuals with genetic diseases, the load may overwhelm the PQC capacity, resulting in accu About MyAccess. If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus Alkaptonuria is a rare inherited genetic disease which is caused by a mutation in the HGD gene for the enzyme homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (EC 188.8.131.52); if a person inherits an abnormal copy from both parents (it is a recessive condition), the body accumulates an intermediate substance called homogentisic acid in the blood and tissues. Homogentisic acid and its oxidized form alkapton are. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH 4) Deficiency: Of children with phenylketonuria, 1 to 2% have a defect in the gene coding for that cofactor of phenylalanine hydroxylase instead of a deficiency in the enzyme itself. BH 4 deficiency also causes decreased synthesis of l-dopa, 5 hydroxytryptophan, and nitric oxide (NO). Without treatment, the most severe. Endocrine disorders 22 Causes of CH The most common cause of congenital hypothyroidism is iodine deficiency. Most commonly due to defect of development of the thyroid gland itself , resulting in an absent (athyreosis) or underdeveloped (hypoplastic) gland. A hypoplastic gland may develop higher in the neck or even in the back of the tongue
What is Tay-Sachs disease? Tay-Sachs disease, or TSD for short, is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a mutation in a gene on chromosome 15, which codes. Acanthosis nigricans most likely is caused by factors that stimulate epidermal keratinocyte and dermal fibroblast proliferation. In the benign form of acanthosis nigricans, the factor is probably. The following points highlight the fourteen major diseases caused due to errors in protein metabolism. The diseases are: 1.Albinism 2.Tyrosinosis 3.Tyrosinernia 4.Phenylketonuria 5.Alkaptonuria 6.Maple Syrup Urine Disease 7.Hartnup's Disease 8.Glycinuria 9.Primary Hyperoxaluria 10.Cystinuria 11.Cystinosis 12.Homocystinuria 13.Histidinemia 14.. Hypervali Pathophysiology Phenylketonuria (PKU), an aminoaciduria, is characterized by an absence or severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme that hydroxylates phenylalanine to tyrosine. PKU is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Variant forms caused by other enzyme defects have been identified. Normal diets typically contain more than twice the amount of phenylalanine (an.
Inborn errors of metabolism are a group of inherited disorders characterized by enzyme defects. Clinical manifestations are usually due to the accumulation of toxic substances in the body. While in many cases the disorder cannot be cured, disease outcomes and life expectancy can be improved with supportive care and the appropriate diet obstructed breathing that causes frequent lung infections. Physical therapy, exercise, and medications are used to reduce the mucus block age of the lung's airways. Chest therapy consists of bronchial, or postural, drainage, which is done by placing the patient in a position that allows drainage of the mucus from the lungs. At the same time What causes GSDs? GSDs occur when there is a problem with the gene that has the instructions for making the enzyme that is missing or not working right. The gene is passed down from parents to children. In most cases, in order to have the GSD, a child must get a bad gene from both parents. Just because both parents have the gene does not always. Phenylketonuria is a single-gene recessive genetic disorder that causes mental retardation along with other physical and behavioral effects. PKU can be screened for shortly after birth and can be treated with diet. There could potentially be drug therapies and/or gene therapies to help treat PKU with more research
A genetic disorder is a disease caused in whole or in part by a change in the DNA sequence away from the normal sequence. Genetic disorders can be caused by a mutation in one gene (monogenic disorder), by mutations in multiple genes (multifactorial inheritance disorder), by a combination of gene mutations and environmental factors, or by damage to chromosomes (changes in the number or. Scientists don't know exactly what causes autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Autism was first described in the 1940s, but very little was known about it until the last few decades. Even today, there is a great deal that we don't know about autism. Because the disorder is so complex and no two people with autism are exactly alike, there are probably many causes for autism Inherited bleeding disorders include the following: Combined deficiency of the vitamin K-dependent clotting factors (VKCFDs), caused by a problem with clotting factors II, VII, IX, and X. Hemophilia A, a condition in which you are missing clotting factor VIII or have low levels of clotting factor VIII.Hemophilia A is the most common type of hemophilia Cerebral neurotransmitter (NT) deficiency has been suggested as a contributing factor in the pathophysiology of brain dysfunction in phenylketonuria (PKU), even in early-treated phenylketonuric patients. The study aimed to review dopamine and serotonin status in PKU, and the effect of the impaired neurotransmission
Hepatitis, inflammation of the liver that results from a variety of causes, both infectious and noninfectious. Infectious agents that cause hepatitis include viruses and parasites. Noninfectious causes include certain drugs and toxic agents. In some instances hepatitis results from an autoimmune reaction Causes of Manganese Deficiency. Wrong diet. Kids with phenylketonuria, this is a genetic condition characterised by high levels of phenylketonuria in the blood. Kids with Perthes disease, this is a rare condition characterized by disrupted flow of blood to the thigh bone PBENYLKET0N0RIA is an autosomal recessive gene disorder. It is the absence of phenylalanine HYDROXYLASE. It turns phenylalanine to tyrosine, which is needed to produce melanin, epinephrine and thyroxine. Failure to thrive Vomiting Rashes and eczematous skin lesions Decreased pigmentation Seizures and tremo PHENYLKETONURIA (PKU) Dr Kumar Ponnusamy1,2 Ms Jegathambigai1 RN1 and Ms Sindhu B3 Biochemistry & Genetics, International Medical School (IMS) Management & Sciencne University, Pathophysiology. Common causes of congenital malformations and their incidence. Abnormalities of sex chromosomes and manifestations. Common genetic abnormalities and transmission. Compare phenylketonuria versus hemophilia in terms of transmission and clinical manifestations. Describe congenital malformations resulting from uterine injur
Contributed by Karen Klyczek, University of Wisconsin - River Falls. Background: PKU is a genetic metabolic disease caused by a mutation in the phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme.In the most common form of PKU, a C to T point mutation causes an arginine to be replaced by tryptophan at amino acid position 408, resulting in an inactive enzyme and incomplete metabolism of phenylalanine-containing. What is Phenylketonuria? Phenylketonuria is a genetic disorder that causes the body of the diseased to be unable to use the amino acid, phenylalanine. The reason for this inability is due to the fact that the enzyme which usually breaks down this amino acid has become deficient, if not completely useless Post Views: 1,885 © 2021 - The Calgary Guide to Understanding Disease Disclaime Phenylketonuria Scientific Review Conference: state of the science and future research needs. Mol Genet Metab. 2014;112:87-122 (PMID: 24667081). Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar 3. Bickel H, Gerrard J, Hickmans EM. Influence of phenylalanine intake on phenylketonuria. Lancet. 1953;265(6790):812-3 1 INTRODUCTION. Phenylketonuria (PKU; OMIM #261600) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by the deficiency in the hepatic enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH; OMIM #612349) (Scriver et al., 1995) that converts phenylalanine into tyrosine requiring the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4).Whenever the enzymatic activity of PAH (EC 184.108.40.206) is impaired, the essential amino acid.
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a rare genetic (inherited) disorder that can cause abnormal mental and physical development if not detected promptly and treated appropriately. Normally, when a person eats foods that contain protein, special chemicals called enzymes break down these proteins into amino acids 1 INTRODUCTION. Phenylketonuria (PKU, OMIM 261600) is an autosomal recessive disorder of phenylalanine (Phe) metabolism caused by deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), encoded by the PAH gene. If untreated, PKU can result in severe cognitive impairment and neurological abnormalities. 1 These symptoms can largely be prevented by initiation of a Phe‐restricted diet shortly after birth
Phenylketonuria: PAH Deficiency . Prevalence - Rare Genetic Disorder of Phenylalanine Metabolism - The most common form of amino acid disorders with US prevalence of 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 15,000 . - Accumulation of fumarylacetoacetate causes cellular damage and apoptosis in live Sickle-Cell Disease Pathophysiology. Sickle cell disease is an inherited genetic condition that involves defects in the shape and function of hemoglobin in the blood. This increases the likelihood. include PKU (phenylketonuria), a single gene disorder. Due to a missing or defective enzyme, children with PKU cannot process a part of a protein called phenylalanine. Without treatment, phenylalanine builds up in the blood and causes intellectual disability. Down syndrome is an example of a chromosomal disorder. Chromosoma Injection of glucagon s.c. into rats caused about a fourfold increase in hepatic PPT. The maximum effect occurred 24 hr after a 0.3 mg/kg dose of glucagon, and increased enzyme activity persisted. The classification of genetic disease into chromosomal, monogenic and multifactorial categories is an oversimplification. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a classic 'monogenic' autosomal recessive disease in which mutation at the human PAH locus was deemed sufficient to explain the impaired function of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (enzymic phenotype), the attendant hyperphenylalaninemia.
Causes of Infant Mortality. The March of Dimes is a great resource for finding state and national information on infant mortality. As you can see here, birth defects are the primary cause of infant mortality, followed by prematurity and/or low birth weight, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and pregnancy complications Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a common inherited blood disorder in the United States, affecting an estimated 70,000 to 100,000 Americans. SCD can lead to lifelong disabilities and reduce average life expectancy. CDC considers SCD a major public health concern and is committed to conducting surveillance, raising awareness, and promoting health education A simple blood test looks for rare conditions, including phenylketonuria (PKU), which can harm your baby's growing brain. PKU is a rare genetic condition that affects metabolism -- the way your. Classic phenylketonuria (PKU). What is PKU? PKU is short for phenylketonuria, also known as PAH deficiency, which is a rare genetic condition that about 350 babies are born with each year in the United States. Difficulty breaking down phenylalanine (Phe), an amino acid found in protein. Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). Tyrosine. Food impacts blood Phe levels untreated maternal phenylketonuria (PKU) (Strømme & Hagberg, 2007). Complications of prematurity, especially in extremely low-birth-weight infants, or postnatal exposure to lead can also cause mental retardation (Piecuch et al., 1997). 3.3 Perinatal problems Perinatal causes involve late pregnancy (complications of pregnancy, diseases i
PAH deficiency causes a spectrum of disorders, including classic phenylketonuria and hyperphenylalaninemia (a less severe accumulation of phenylalanine). Because PKU is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder, both parents must have at least one mutated allele of the PAH gene. The child must inherit both mutated alleles, one from each parent Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a rare genetic disease that results in reduced activity of the enzyme, phenylalanine hydroxylase, which converts the essential amino acid, phenylalanine (Phe) to tyrosine Phenylketonuria is transmitted by an autosomal recessive gene, which is present in about 1 in every 60 people. [britannica.com] Dry, Scaly Skin. Signs of classic PKU include: Irritability Seizures (epilepsy) Dry, scaly skin (known as eczema) Musty or mouse-like body odor Pale hair and skin Developmental delays Many of these signs may. The symptoms of Prader-Willi syndrome are likely due to dysfunction of a portion of the brain called the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is a small endocrine organ at the base of the brain that plays a crucial role in many bodily functions, including regulating hunger and satiety, body temperature, pain, sleep-wake balance, fluid balance, emotions, and fertility INTRODUCTION. Gout refers to disease that occurs in response to the presence of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in joints, bones, and soft tissues. It may result in an acute arthritis (a gout flare), chronic arthritis (chronic gouty arthritis), or tophi (tophaceous gout) [ 1,2 ]. Hyperuricemia (typically defined as serum urate concentration >6.
Summary: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (EC [220.127.116.11]). Affected patients develop elevated plasma and tissue levels of phenylalanine and its related ketoacids. Untreated patients usually exhibit severe mental retardation and poor motor function, with characteristic T2 white matter signal abnormalities. hyperuricemia in the absence of gout is not a disease state. The typical initial attack of gout usually occurs in a single joint, often in the big toe. Without treatment gout evolves over years to chronic tophaceous gout often with chronic arthritis in up to 75% of cases. Detection of monosodium urate crystals is considered mandatory for establishing the diagnosis of gout as serum uric acid. Characteristics & Causes of Spasticity Characteristic Features. Clasp-knife phenomenon: The limb experiencing spasticity suddenly gives way after an initial resistance to movement.Much like how a clasp-knife slightly resists before folding in. This can be caused by over-stretching the joint or muscles (during initial movement), the inverse stretch reflex (during sustained movements), and. Mechanisms of tumor-related epileptogenesis remain poorly understood. In tumor-associated epilepsy, nontumoral surrounding tissue may cause seizures.39 Abnormal growth kinetics of tumors can affect surrounding neurons morphologically and biochemically, altering neuronal structure and affecting the release of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and.
Phenylketonuria (PKU), caused by variants in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene, is the most common autosomal-recessive Mendelian phenotype of amino acid metabolism. We estimated that globally 0.45 million individuals have PKU, with global prevalence 1:23,930 live births (range 1:4,500 [Italy]-1:125,000 [Japan]). Comparing genotypes and metabolic phenotypes from 16,092 affected. Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) represent monogenic disorders in which specific enzyme deficiencies, or a group of enzyme deficiencies (e.g., peroxisomal biogenesis disorders) result in either toxic accumulation of metabolic intermediates or deficiency in the production of key end-products (e.g., An overview of the biochemical defects and their effects in Phenylketonuria. The mutation that causes PKU is in the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). When this enzyme is defective a block is produced in a biochemical pathway. As PAH normally converts phenylalanine to tyrosine, the block occurs between phenylalanine and tyrosine..
/ Causes There is no known single cause for autism spectrum disorder, but it is generally accepted that it is caused by abnormalities in brain structure or function. Brain scans show differences in the shape and structure of the brain in children with autism compared to in neurotypical children Microcephaly is a neonatal malformation defined as a head size much smaller compared with other babies of the same age and sex. If this combines with poor brain growth, babies with microcephaly can develop developmental disabilities. The severity of microcephaly ranges from mild to severe Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by a deficiency in the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH).This enzyme is necessary to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine to the amino acid tyrosine.When PAH is deficient, phenylalanine accumulates and is converted into phenylketones, which are detected in the urine Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease caused by mutations in a gene called the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene.The CFTR gene provides instructions for the CFTR protein. The CFTR protein is located in every organ of the body that makes mucus, including the lungs, liver, pancreas, and intestines, as well as sweat glands.. The CFTR protein has also been found in.
Phenylketonuria (PKU), with its associated hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) and mental retardation, is a classic genetic disease and the first to have an identified chemical cause of impaired cognitive development. Treatment from birth with a low phenylalanine diet largely prevents the deviant cognitive phenotype by ameliorating HPA and is recognized as one of the first effective treatments of a. Keywords: Phenylketonuria, Juvenile idiopathic Arthritis, Inflammation Background Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a rare, genetic disease caused by mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene; as PAH converts phenylalanine (Phe) to tyrosine (Tyr), its lack causes an accumulation of Phe . Hyper-phenylalaninemia will damage brain. Congenital Heart Disease: Etiologies - 70-80% Multifactorial - 6-12% Gross Chromosomal Anomaly-10-15% Single gene defect - 1% Maternal Diseas
About Inborn Errors of Metabolism. Metabolism is a sequence of chemical reactions that take place in cells in the body. These reactions are responsible for the breakdown of nutrients and the generation of energy in our bodies. Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are a group of disorders that causes a block in a metabolic pathway leading to. Free Download Endocrine Disorders PowerPoint Presentation. This medical presentation by Dr. Manal Kloub, is about endocrine disorders. It talks about Phenylketonuria (PKU), its etiology, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment and prevention. Endocrine disorders 23 Causes of CH Some of these cases of developmentally abnormal glands result from. This causes a range of systems in the body to develop poorly and may result in respiratory issues, spasms, and abnormal facial features. This article explores the causes, symptoms, and treatment. Untreated phenylketonuria (called PKU, an inborn metabolic disorder caused by the absence of an enzyme) Rubella (German measles) Diagnosis of autism. Diagnosing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be difficult, since there is no medical test, like a blood test, to diagnose the disorders
Phenylketonuria definition is - an inherited metabolic disorder caused by an enzyme deficiency resulting in accumulation of phenylalanine and its metabolites in the blood causing usually severe intellectual disability and seizures unless phenylalanine is restricted from the diet beginning at birth —abbreviation PKU Galactosemia is a rare genetic condition that prevents babies from processing galactose, an important sugar in breast milk. Though the disease can cause many issues, it's easily diagnosed and. Microcephaly is a condition where infants are born with a smaller than average head size. Other symptoms and complications include seizures and developmental delays. It may link to the Zika virus. Phenylketonuria is an autosomal recessive human genetic disease caused by mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. In the present work we have used different expression systems to reveal folding defects of the PAH protein caused by phenylketonuria mutations L348V, S349L, and V388M. The amount of mutant proteins and/or the residual activity can be rescued by chaperonin co.